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문제

고대 아즈텍 문명의 유적지에서 보물을 찾던 한신이는 긴 문장이 적혀있는 파피루스 두루마리를 우연히 발견하게 되었다. 그 종이의 문장들은 B W 그리고 Q처럼 생긴 3가지의 다른 문자로만 이루어져있었다.

암호학을 조금이나마 배웠던 한신이는 이 코드가 3000년전에 만들어진 아주 유명한 쿼드 트리 암호 구조라는 것을 알게되었다.

쿼드 트리 암호화를 이용하면 비밀스러운 그림이나 사진 (보물지도 같은)등을 다음과 방식을 이용하여 암호화 할수 있다. 만약에 그림 전체가 검은색이라면 B로, 만약 흰색이라면 W로 변환하고 검은부분과 흰부분이 같이 있다면 그림을 Qxxxx형식으로 x를 4개의 부분으로 재귀적으로 쪼개서 변환한다. (왼쪽 위, 오른쪽 위, 왼쪽 아래, 오른쪽 아래 순으로) 아즈텍 문명은 모든 그림은 2차 형식의 n*n 픽셀로 되어 있으며 이때 n은 2의 제곱수이며 완벽한 쿼드 트리 구조로만 구성되어 있다.

예를들어 2*2 체스판을 암호화 하면 QWBBW로 나타낼 수 있으며, 4*4 체스판은 QQWBBWQWBBWQWBBWQWBBW으로 나타낼 수 있다.

자! 이제 우리 한신이가 이 쿼드 트리 문자열을 XBM 형식의 파일로 만들수 있도록 해독하는 프로그램을 작성해주시기 바랍니다.

입력

첫 번째 줄에는 정수 n (8 <= n <= 512)을 입력 받고 이 값은 행과 열의 픽셀 크기를 의미하며 n은 무조건 2의 제곱수로 입력된다.

두 번째 줄에는 B와 W, Q로만 이루어진 문자열이 입력되며 이 문자열은 사진을 쿼드 트리 구조의 n*n 픽셀들로 암호화한 것이다.

출력

  • 첫 번째 줄에는 "#define quadtree_width n"로 출력 되어야 하며 여기서 n은 가로 픽셀 크기를 의미한다. (이 사진은 n*n 픽셀이다.)
  • 두 번째 줄에는 "#define quadtree_height n"로 출력 되는데 여기서 n은 세로 픽셀 크기를 의미한다.
  • 세 번째 줄에는 "static char quadtree_bits[] = {"가 출력된다.
  • 그리고 다음 n줄에는 사진 한줄의 픽셀값이 n/8개의 헥사값로 변환되어 출력된다.

    각 헥사값은 8비트로 8개의 픽셀이 왼쪽에서 오른쪽으로 변환되어 구성된다. (가장 왼쪽 비트 값은 1이고 맨 오른쪽 비트값은 128이다.) 이 헥사값은 0xdd형식으로 입력이 되며 여기서 d는 { 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,a,b,c,d,e,f }중 하나이다.

    예시 : 8 픽셀의 WBBBBWWB는 0x9e로 쓰인다.
    (2+4+8+16+128 = 158 = 0x9e) 각 헥사값은 콤마(,)로 구분된다.
  • 마지막 줄은 "};"가 출력된다.

예제 입력 1

16
QQWBBWQWBBWQWBBWQWBBW

예제 출력 1

#define quadtree_width 16
#define quadtree_height 16
static char quadtree_bits[] = {
0xf0,0xf0,
0xf0,0xf0,
0xf0,0xf0,
0xf0,0xf0,
0x0f,0x0f,
0x0f,0x0f,
0x0f,0x0f,
0x0f,0x0f,
0xf0,0xf0,
0xf0,0xf0,
0xf0,0xf0,
0xf0,0xf0,
0x0f,0x0f,
0x0f,0x0f,
0x0f,0x0f,
0x0f,0x0f,
};
[{"problem_id":"6576","problem_lang":"0","title":"\ucffc\ub4dc \ud2b8\ub9ac","description":"<p>\uace0\ub300 \uc544\uc988\ud14d \ubb38\uba85\uc758 \uc720\uc801\uc9c0\uc5d0\uc11c \ubcf4\ubb3c\uc744 \ucc3e\ub358 \ud55c\uc2e0\uc774\ub294 \uae34 \ubb38\uc7a5\uc774 \uc801\ud600\uc788\ub294 \ud30c\ud53c\ub8e8\uc2a4 \ub450\ub8e8\ub9c8\ub9ac\ub97c \uc6b0\uc5f0\ud788 \ubc1c\uacac\ud558\uac8c \ub418\uc5c8\ub2e4. \uadf8 \uc885\uc774\uc758 \ubb38\uc7a5\ub4e4\uc740 <em>B <\/em>\uc640 <em>W<\/em> \uadf8\ub9ac\uace0 <em>Q<\/em>\ucc98\ub7fc \uc0dd\uae34 3\uac00\uc9c0\uc758 \ub2e4\ub978 \ubb38\uc790\ub85c\ub9cc \uc774\ub8e8\uc5b4\uc838\uc788\uc5c8\ub2e4.<\/p>\r\n\r\n<p>\uc554\ud638\ud559\uc744 \uc870\uae08\uc774\ub098\ub9c8 \ubc30\uc6e0\ub358 \ud55c\uc2e0\uc774\ub294 \uc774 \ucf54\ub4dc\uac00 3000\ub144\uc804\uc5d0 \ub9cc\ub4e4\uc5b4\uc9c4 \uc544\uc8fc \uc720\uba85\ud55c \ucffc\ub4dc \ud2b8\ub9ac \uc554\ud638 \uad6c\uc870\ub77c\ub294 \uac83\uc744 \uc54c\uac8c\ub418\uc5c8\ub2e4.<\/p>\r\n\r\n<p>\ucffc\ub4dc \ud2b8\ub9ac \uc554\ud638\ud654\ub97c \uc774\uc6a9\ud558\uba74 \ube44\ubc00\uc2a4\ub7ec\uc6b4 \uadf8\ub9bc\uc774\ub098 \uc0ac\uc9c4 (\ubcf4\ubb3c\uc9c0\ub3c4 \uac19\uc740)\ub4f1\uc744 \ub2e4\uc74c\uacfc \ubc29\uc2dd\uc744 \uc774\uc6a9\ud558\uc5ec \uc554\ud638\ud654 \ud560\uc218 \uc788\ub2e4. \ub9cc\uc57d\uc5d0 \uadf8\ub9bc \uc804\uccb4\uac00 \uac80\uc740\uc0c9\uc774\ub77c\uba74 <em>B<\/em>\ub85c, \ub9cc\uc57d \ud770\uc0c9\uc774\ub77c\uba74 <em>W<\/em>\ub85c \ubcc0\ud658\ud558\uace0 \uac80\uc740\ubd80\ubd84\uacfc \ud770\ubd80\ubd84\uc774 \uac19\uc774 \uc788\ub2e4\uba74 \uadf8\ub9bc\uc744 <em>Qxxxx<\/em>\ud615\uc2dd\uc73c\ub85c x\ub97c 4\uac1c\uc758 \ubd80\ubd84\uc73c\ub85c \uc7ac\uadc0\uc801\uc73c\ub85c \ucabc\uac1c\uc11c \ubcc0\ud658\ud55c\ub2e4. (\uc67c\ucabd \uc704, \uc624\ub978\ucabd \uc704, \uc67c\ucabd \uc544\ub798, \uc624\ub978\ucabd \uc544\ub798 \uc21c\uc73c\ub85c) \uc544\uc988\ud14d \ubb38\uba85\uc740 \ubaa8\ub4e0 \uadf8\ub9bc\uc740 2\ucc28 \ud615\uc2dd\uc758 <em>n*n <\/em>\ud53d\uc140\ub85c \ub418\uc5b4 \uc788\uc73c\uba70 \uc774\ub54c <em>n<\/em>\uc740 2\uc758 \uc81c\uacf1\uc218\uc774\uba70 \uc644\ubcbd\ud55c \ucffc\ub4dc \ud2b8\ub9ac \uad6c\uc870\ub85c\ub9cc \uad6c\uc131\ub418\uc5b4 \uc788\ub2e4.<\/p>\r\n\r\n<p>\uc608\ub97c\ub4e4\uc5b4 2*2 \uccb4\uc2a4\ud310\uc744 \uc554\ud638\ud654 \ud558\uba74 QWBBW\ub85c \ub098\ud0c0\ub0bc \uc218 \uc788\uc73c\uba70, 4*4 \uccb4\uc2a4\ud310\uc740 QQWBBWQWBBWQWBBWQWBBW\uc73c\ub85c \ub098\ud0c0\ub0bc \uc218 \uc788\ub2e4.<\/p>\r\n\r\n<p>\uc790! \uc774\uc81c \uc6b0\ub9ac \ud55c\uc2e0\uc774\uac00 \uc774 \ucffc\ub4dc \ud2b8\ub9ac \ubb38\uc790\uc5f4\uc744 XBM \ud615\uc2dd\uc758 \ud30c\uc77c\ub85c \ub9cc\ub4e4\uc218 \uc788\ub3c4\ub85d \ud574\ub3c5\ud558\ub294 \ud504\ub85c\uadf8\ub7a8\uc744 \uc791\uc131\ud574\uc8fc\uc2dc\uae30 \ubc14\ub78d\ub2c8\ub2e4.<\/p>\r\n","input":"<p>\uccab \ubc88\uc9f8 \uc904\uc5d0\ub294 \uc815\uc218 <em>n<\/em> (8 &lt;= <em>n<\/em> &lt;= 512)\uc744 \uc785\ub825 \ubc1b\uace0 \uc774 \uac12\uc740 \ud589\uacfc \uc5f4\uc758 \ud53d\uc140 \ud06c\uae30\ub97c \uc758\ubbf8\ud558\uba70 <em>n<\/em>\uc740 \ubb34\uc870\uac74 2\uc758 \uc81c\uacf1\uc218\ub85c \uc785\ub825\ub41c\ub2e4.<\/p>\r\n\r\n<p>\ub450 \ubc88\uc9f8 \uc904\uc5d0\ub294 B\uc640 W, Q\ub85c\ub9cc \uc774\ub8e8\uc5b4\uc9c4 \ubb38\uc790\uc5f4\uc774 \uc785\ub825\ub418\uba70 \uc774 \ubb38\uc790\uc5f4\uc740 \uc0ac\uc9c4\uc744 \ucffc\ub4dc \ud2b8\ub9ac \uad6c\uc870\uc758 <em>n<\/em>*<em>n \ud53d\uc140\ub4e4\ub85c \uc554\ud638\ud654\ud55c \uac83\uc774\ub2e4.<\/em><\/p>\r\n","output":"<ul>\r\n\t<li>\uccab \ubc88\uc9f8 \uc904\uc5d0\ub294 &quot;#define quadtree_width <em>n<\/em>&quot;\ub85c \ucd9c\ub825 \ub418\uc5b4\uc57c \ud558\uba70 \uc5ec\uae30\uc11c n\uc740 \uac00\ub85c \ud53d\uc140 \ud06c\uae30\ub97c \uc758\ubbf8\ud55c\ub2e4. (\uc774 \uc0ac\uc9c4\uc740 <em>n*n <\/em>\ud53d\uc140\uc774\ub2e4.)<\/li>\r\n\t<li>\ub450 \ubc88\uc9f8 \uc904\uc5d0\ub294 &quot;#define quadtree_height <em>n<\/em>&quot;\ub85c \ucd9c\ub825 \ub418\ub294\ub370 \uc5ec\uae30\uc11c n\uc740 \uc138\ub85c \ud53d\uc140 \ud06c\uae30\ub97c \uc758\ubbf8\ud55c\ub2e4.<\/li>\r\n\t<li>\uc138 \ubc88\uc9f8 \uc904\uc5d0\ub294 &quot;static char quadtree_bits[] = {&quot;\uac00 \ucd9c\ub825\ub41c\ub2e4.<\/li>\r\n\t<li>\uadf8\ub9ac\uace0 \ub2e4\uc74c n\uc904\uc5d0\ub294 \uc0ac\uc9c4 \ud55c\uc904\uc758 \ud53d\uc140\uac12\uc774 <em>n\/8<\/em>\uac1c\uc758 \ud5e5\uc0ac\uac12\ub85c \ubcc0\ud658\ub418\uc5b4 \ucd9c\ub825\ub41c\ub2e4.<br \/>\r\n\t<br \/>\r\n\t\uac01 \ud5e5\uc0ac\uac12\uc740 8\ube44\ud2b8\ub85c 8\uac1c\uc758 \ud53d\uc140\uc774 \uc67c\ucabd\uc5d0\uc11c \uc624\ub978\ucabd\uc73c\ub85c \ubcc0\ud658\ub418\uc5b4 \uad6c\uc131\ub41c\ub2e4. (\uac00\uc7a5 \uc67c\ucabd \ube44\ud2b8 \uac12\uc740 1\uc774\uace0 \ub9e8 \uc624\ub978\ucabd \ube44\ud2b8\uac12\uc740 128\uc774\ub2e4.) \uc774 \ud5e5\uc0ac\uac12\uc740 0x<em>dd<\/em>\ud615\uc2dd\uc73c\ub85c \uc785\ub825\uc774 \ub418\uba70 \uc5ec\uae30\uc11c d\ub294 { 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,a,b,c,d,e,f }\uc911 \ud558\ub098\uc774\ub2e4.<br \/>\r\n\t<br \/>\r\n\t\uc608\uc2dc : 8 \ud53d\uc140\uc758 WBBBBWWB\ub294 0x9e\ub85c \uc4f0\uc778\ub2e4.<br \/>\r\n\t(2+4+8+16+128 = 158 = 0x9e) \uac01 \ud5e5\uc0ac\uac12\uc740 \ucf64\ub9c8(,)\ub85c \uad6c\ubd84\ub41c\ub2e4.<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>\ub9c8\uc9c0\ub9c9 \uc904\uc740 &quot;};&quot;\uac00 \ucd9c\ub825\ub41c\ub2e4.<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>\r\n","hint":"","original":"0","problem_lang_code":"\ud55c\uad6d\uc5b4"},{"problem_id":"6576","problem_lang":"1","title":"Quad Tree","description":"\n\n<p>\n<\/p><p>\n\nWhile searching for treasures in an ancient Aztec ruin, Florida Jones (the\nbrother of famous Indiana Jones) stumbles across a papyrus roll lettered\nwith a long string of symbols. There are three different symbols occuring\nin the string which we will call <i>B<\/i>, <i>W<\/i> and <i>Q<\/i> here.<\/p><p>\nBeing somewhat experienced in cryptography, Florida Jones recognizes the code immediately\nas the famous Quadtree Encoding Scheme that has been invented 3000 years ago.\n<\/p><p>\nWith the Quadtree system, secret pictures (like treasure maps) were encoded in\nthe following way: If the whole picture was black, it was encoded by the letter\n<i>B<\/i>. If it was completely white, it was encoded by <i>W<\/i>.\nIf both colors were used (what was usually the case), it was encoded by <i>Qxxxx<\/i>\nwhere each <i>x<\/i> was a string that recursively encoded one quarter of the picture\n(in the order top left, top right, bottom left, bottom right).\nAs the Aztecs always used quadratic pictures with <i>n*n<\/i> pixels\nwhere <i>n<\/i> was a power of two, this method always worked perfectly.\n<\/p><p>\nA 2*2 chess board, for instance, would be encoded as QWBBW, \na 4*4 chess board as QQWBBWQWBBWQWBBWQWBBW.\n<\/p><p>\nYour job is to decode the quadtree string and output the picture in\nthe XBM format (see output specification).\n\n    <\/p>","input":"\n    \nThe input file contains an integer <i>n<\/i> (8 &lt;= <i>n<\/i> &lt;= 512)\non the first line, giving the size of the picture in pixels per row\/column.\n<i>n<\/i> will always be a power of two.\n<\/p><p>\nOn the second line, a string consisting of the letters B, W and Q\nfollows. The string encodes a picture with <i>n<\/i>*<i>n<\/i> pixels\nwith the quadtree scheme.\n\n    ","output":"\n<ul>\n<li>\nOn the first line, print \"#define quadtree_width <i>n<\/i>\" where <i>n<\/i> is\nthe picture size given in the input file.\n<\/li><li>\nOn the second line, print \"#define quadtree_height <i>n<\/i>\" accordingly.\n<\/li><li>\nOn the third line, print \"static char quadtree_bits[] = {\".\n<\/li><li>\nThen, print <i>n<\/i> lines (each one encoding one pixel row of the picture)\nwith <i>n\/8<\/i> hexadecimal numbers per line.<\/p><p>\nEach hexadecimal number is composed of 8 bits that encode 8 pixels from left to right\n(where the leftmost bit has the value 1 and the rightmost bit has the value 128).\nThe hexadecimal numbers should be printed in the form 0x<i>dd<\/i> where\n<i>d<\/i> is one character of the set { 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,a,b,c,d,e,f }.\n<\/p><p>\nExample: The 8 pixels WBBBBWWB would be written as 0x9e. (2+4+8+16+128 = 158 = 0x9e)\n<\/p><p>\nPrint a comma after each hexadecimal number.\n<\/li><li>\nOn the last line, print \"};\". \n<\/li><\/ul>\n","hint":"","original":"1","problem_lang_code":"\uc601\uc5b4"}]

출처

Contest > University of Ulm Local Contest > University of Ulm Local Contest 1999 C번

  • 문제의 오타를 찾은 사람: corea
  • 문제를 번역한 사람: vumbumy