시간 제한 메모리 제한 제출 정답 맞은 사람 정답 비율
1 초 128 MB 395 186 143 49.141%

문제

멀티 컴퓨터 시스템은 여러 개의 노드로 이루어져 있고, 각 노드는 자체 메모리를 가지고 있다. 시스템 상의 각 노드는 단방향 커뮤니케이션 링크로 서로 연결되어 있다. 시스템의 상호 접속 네트워크는 방향 그래프로 나타낼 수 있다. 정점은 노드를 나타내며, 간선은 네트워크의 단방향 링크를 나타낸다. 그림 1은 14개의 노드가 19개의 단방향 링크로 서로 연결된 상호 접속 네트워크를 나타낸다.

선형 배열과 링은 상호 접속 네트워크에서 가장 중요한 두 구조이다. 선형 배열에서 각 양 끝 노드를 제외한 모든 노드는 인접한 노드를 두 개 가진다. 한 노드는 왼쪽, 다른 노드는 오른쪽에 있으며, 두 노드는 모두 공통된 이웃을 통해 연결되어 있다. 이 구조에서 양 끝 점이 연결되었을 때, 그 구조를 링이라고 한다. 즉, 0번부터 k-1번까지, k개 노드로 이루어진 선형 배열은 모든 0 ≤ i < k-1에 대해서 노드 i에서 노드 i+1로 단방향 링크가 존재해야 한다. 여기서 노드 k-1과 노드 0을 연결하는 단방향 링크를 추가하면 링이 된다.

병렬 어플리케이션을 지원하려면, 앞에서 설명한 두 구조 중 하나가 필요하다. 따라서, 시스템을 여러 개의 서브 시스템으로 분해해야 한다. 각 서브 시스템은 링 또는 선형 배열이어야 한다. 서브 시스템은 공통된 노드를 공유할 수 없다.

최근에 발표된 한 보고서에 의하면, k개 노드로 이루어진 링의 가치는 k 달러이고, k개의 노드로 이루어진 선형 배열의 가치는 k-1 달러이다. 따라서, 이익을 최대로 하면서, 시스템을 서브 시스템으로 분해하는 연구가 진행중이다. 

한 멀티 컴퓨터 시스템의 상호 접속 네트워크가 주어졌을 때, 이 시스템을 링 과/또는 선형 배열로 분해해서 가치를 최대로 하는 프로그램을 작성하시오. 노드를 1개만 가지는 선형 배열도 존재할 수 있다. 이 때, 가치는 0 달러이다.

그림 1. 상호 연결 네트워크를 노드 6개로 이루어진 링 (빨간색)과 노드 8개로 이루어진 선형 배열 (초록색) 으로 분해한 그림이다. 이 분해의 총 가치는 13달러이고, 이 값은 가능한 방법중 최대값이다.

입력

첫째 줄에 테스트 케이스의 개수 T가 주어진다. 각 테스트 케이스의 첫째 줄에는 상호 네트워크를 이루는 노드의 수 n과 단방향 링크의 수 m이 주어진다. (n ≤ 1,000, m ≤ 50,000) 노드는 0번부터 n-1번까지 번호가 매겨져 있다. 다음 m개 줄에는 u에서 v로 향하는 단방향 링크를 나타내는 두 정수 u와 v가 주어진다. 두 정수는 한 줄에 주어지며, 항상 공백으로 구분되어져 있다.

출력

각 테스트 케이스 마다, 한 줄을 출력한다. 이 줄에는 정수를 하나 포함해야 하며, 정수는 입력으로 주어진 상호 접속 네트워크를 링 과/또는 선형 배열로 분해했을 때 얻을 수 있는 가치의 최대값이다.

예제 입력 1

3
4 3
3 2
1 0
2 3
6 6
0 1
1 2
2 3
3 1
3 4
4 5
14 19
0 1
1 2
2 3
3 4
4 5
5 0
5 4
2 1
2 6
6 7
7 8
8 9
9 1
8 7
7 10
10 11
11 12
12 13
13 8

예제 출력 1

3
5
13
[{"problem_id":"3295","problem_lang":"0","title":"\ub2e8\ubc29\ud5a5 \ub9c1\ud06c \ub124\ud2b8\uc6cc\ud06c","description":"<p>\uba40\ud2f0 \ucef4\ud4e8\ud130 \uc2dc\uc2a4\ud15c\uc740 \uc5ec\ub7ec \uac1c\uc758 \ub178\ub4dc\ub85c \uc774\ub8e8\uc5b4\uc838 \uc788\uace0, \uac01 \ub178\ub4dc\ub294 \uc790\uccb4 \uba54\ubaa8\ub9ac\ub97c \uac00\uc9c0\uace0 \uc788\ub2e4. \uc2dc\uc2a4\ud15c \uc0c1\uc758 \uac01 \ub178\ub4dc\ub294 \ub2e8\ubc29\ud5a5 \ucee4\ubba4\ub2c8\ucf00\uc774\uc158 \ub9c1\ud06c\ub85c \uc11c\ub85c \uc5f0\uacb0\ub418\uc5b4 \uc788\ub2e4. \uc2dc\uc2a4\ud15c\uc758 \uc0c1\ud638 \uc811\uc18d \ub124\ud2b8\uc6cc\ud06c\ub294 \ubc29\ud5a5 \uadf8\ub798\ud504\ub85c \ub098\ud0c0\ub0bc \uc218 \uc788\ub2e4. \uc815\uc810\uc740 \ub178\ub4dc\ub97c \ub098\ud0c0\ub0b4\uba70, \uac04\uc120\uc740 \ub124\ud2b8\uc6cc\ud06c\uc758 \ub2e8\ubc29\ud5a5 \ub9c1\ud06c\ub97c \ub098\ud0c0\ub0b8\ub2e4. \uadf8\ub9bc 1\uc740 14\uac1c\uc758 \ub178\ub4dc\uac00 19\uac1c\uc758 \ub2e8\ubc29\ud5a5 \ub9c1\ud06c\ub85c \uc11c\ub85c \uc5f0\uacb0\ub41c \uc0c1\ud638 \uc811\uc18d \ub124\ud2b8\uc6cc\ud06c\ub97c \ub098\ud0c0\ub0b8\ub2e4.<\/p>\r\n\r\n<p>\uc120\ud615 \ubc30\uc5f4\uacfc \ub9c1\uc740 \uc0c1\ud638 \uc811\uc18d \ub124\ud2b8\uc6cc\ud06c\uc5d0\uc11c \uac00\uc7a5 \uc911\uc694\ud55c \ub450 \uad6c\uc870\uc774\ub2e4. \uc120\ud615 \ubc30\uc5f4\uc5d0\uc11c \uac01 \uc591 \ub05d \ub178\ub4dc\ub97c \uc81c\uc678\ud55c \ubaa8\ub4e0 \ub178\ub4dc\ub294 \uc778\uc811\ud55c \ub178\ub4dc\ub97c \ub450 \uac1c \uac00\uc9c4\ub2e4. \ud55c \ub178\ub4dc\ub294 \uc67c\ucabd, \ub2e4\ub978 \ub178\ub4dc\ub294 \uc624\ub978\ucabd\uc5d0 \uc788\uc73c\uba70, \ub450 \ub178\ub4dc\ub294 \ubaa8\ub450 \uacf5\ud1b5\ub41c \uc774\uc6c3\uc744 \ud1b5\ud574 \uc5f0\uacb0\ub418\uc5b4 \uc788\ub2e4. \uc774 \uad6c\uc870\uc5d0\uc11c&nbsp;\uc591 \ub05d \uc810\uc774 \uc5f0\uacb0\ub418\uc5c8\uc744 \ub54c, \uadf8 \uad6c\uc870\ub97c \ub9c1\uc774\ub77c\uace0 \ud55c\ub2e4. \uc989, 0\ubc88\ubd80\ud130 k-1\ubc88\uae4c\uc9c0, k\uac1c \ub178\ub4dc\ub85c \uc774\ub8e8\uc5b4\uc9c4 \uc120\ud615 \ubc30\uc5f4\uc740 \ubaa8\ub4e0 0 &le; i &lt; k-1\uc5d0 \ub300\ud574\uc11c \ub178\ub4dc i\uc5d0\uc11c \ub178\ub4dc i+1\ub85c \ub2e8\ubc29\ud5a5 \ub9c1\ud06c\uac00 \uc874\uc7ac\ud574\uc57c \ud55c\ub2e4. \uc5ec\uae30\uc11c \ub178\ub4dc k-1\uacfc \ub178\ub4dc 0\uc744 \uc5f0\uacb0\ud558\ub294 \ub2e8\ubc29\ud5a5 \ub9c1\ud06c\ub97c \ucd94\uac00\ud558\uba74 \ub9c1\uc774 \ub41c\ub2e4.<\/p>\r\n\r\n<p>\ubcd1\ub82c&nbsp;\uc5b4\ud50c\ub9ac\ucf00\uc774\uc158\uc744 \uc9c0\uc6d0\ud558\ub824\uba74, \uc55e\uc5d0\uc11c \uc124\uba85\ud55c \ub450 \uad6c\uc870 \uc911 \ud558\ub098\uac00 \ud544\uc694\ud558\ub2e4. \ub530\ub77c\uc11c, \uc2dc\uc2a4\ud15c\uc744 \uc5ec\ub7ec \uac1c\uc758 \uc11c\ube0c \uc2dc\uc2a4\ud15c\uc73c\ub85c \ubd84\ud574\ud574\uc57c \ud55c\ub2e4. \uac01 \uc11c\ube0c \uc2dc\uc2a4\ud15c\uc740 \ub9c1 \ub610\ub294 \uc120\ud615 \ubc30\uc5f4\uc774\uc5b4\uc57c \ud55c\ub2e4. \uc11c\ube0c \uc2dc\uc2a4\ud15c\uc740 \uacf5\ud1b5\ub41c \ub178\ub4dc\ub97c \uacf5\uc720\ud560 \uc218 \uc5c6\ub2e4.<\/p>\r\n\r\n<p>\ucd5c\uadfc\uc5d0 \ubc1c\ud45c\ub41c \ud55c \ubcf4\uace0\uc11c\uc5d0 \uc758\ud558\uba74, k\uac1c \ub178\ub4dc\ub85c \uc774\ub8e8\uc5b4\uc9c4 \ub9c1\uc758 \uac00\uce58\ub294 k \ub2ec\ub7ec\uc774\uace0, k\uac1c\uc758 \ub178\ub4dc\ub85c \uc774\ub8e8\uc5b4\uc9c4 \uc120\ud615 \ubc30\uc5f4\uc758 \uac00\uce58\ub294 k-1 \ub2ec\ub7ec\uc774\ub2e4. \ub530\ub77c\uc11c, \uc774\uc775\uc744 \ucd5c\ub300\ub85c \ud558\uba74\uc11c, \uc2dc\uc2a4\ud15c\uc744 \uc11c\ube0c \uc2dc\uc2a4\ud15c\uc73c\ub85c \ubd84\ud574\ud558\ub294 \uc5f0\uad6c\uac00 \uc9c4\ud589\uc911\uc774\ub2e4.&nbsp;<\/p>\r\n\r\n<p>\ud55c \uba40\ud2f0 \ucef4\ud4e8\ud130 \uc2dc\uc2a4\ud15c\uc758 \uc0c1\ud638 \uc811\uc18d \ub124\ud2b8\uc6cc\ud06c\uac00 \uc8fc\uc5b4\uc84c\uc744 \ub54c, \uc774 \uc2dc\uc2a4\ud15c\uc744 \ub9c1 \uacfc\/\ub610\ub294 \uc120\ud615 \ubc30\uc5f4\ub85c \ubd84\ud574\ud574\uc11c \uac00\uce58\ub97c \ucd5c\ub300\ub85c \ud558\ub294 \ud504\ub85c\uadf8\ub7a8\uc744 \uc791\uc131\ud558\uc2dc\uc624. \ub178\ub4dc\ub97c 1\uac1c\ub9cc \uac00\uc9c0\ub294 \uc120\ud615 \ubc30\uc5f4\ub3c4 \uc874\uc7ac\ud560 \uc218 \uc788\ub2e4. \uc774 \ub54c, \uac00\uce58\ub294 0 \ub2ec\ub7ec\uc774\ub2e4.<\/p>\r\n\r\n<p><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/upload\/images\/interconn.png\" style=\"height:305px; width:365px\" \/><\/p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>\uadf8\ub9bc 1<\/strong>. \uc0c1\ud638 \uc5f0\uacb0 \ub124\ud2b8\uc6cc\ud06c\ub97c \ub178\ub4dc 6\uac1c\ub85c \uc774\ub8e8\uc5b4\uc9c4 \ub9c1 (\ube68\uac04\uc0c9)\uacfc \ub178\ub4dc 8\uac1c\ub85c \uc774\ub8e8\uc5b4\uc9c4 \uc120\ud615 \ubc30\uc5f4 (\ucd08\ub85d\uc0c9) \uc73c\ub85c \ubd84\ud574\ud55c \uadf8\ub9bc\uc774\ub2e4. \uc774 \ubd84\ud574\uc758 \ucd1d \uac00\uce58\ub294 13\ub2ec\ub7ec\uc774\uace0, \uc774 \uac12\uc740 \uac00\ub2a5\ud55c \ubc29\ubc95\uc911 \ucd5c\ub300\uac12\uc774\ub2e4.<\/p>\r\n","input":"<p>\uccab\uc9f8 \uc904\uc5d0 \ud14c\uc2a4\ud2b8 \ucf00\uc774\uc2a4\uc758 \uac1c\uc218 T\uac00 \uc8fc\uc5b4\uc9c4\ub2e4. \uac01 \ud14c\uc2a4\ud2b8 \ucf00\uc774\uc2a4\uc758 \uccab\uc9f8 \uc904\uc5d0\ub294 \uc0c1\ud638 \ub124\ud2b8\uc6cc\ud06c\ub97c \uc774\ub8e8\ub294 \ub178\ub4dc\uc758 \uc218 n\uacfc \ub2e8\ubc29\ud5a5 \ub9c1\ud06c\uc758 \uc218 m\uc774 \uc8fc\uc5b4\uc9c4\ub2e4. (n &le; 1,000, m &le; 50,000) \ub178\ub4dc\ub294 0\ubc88\ubd80\ud130 n-1\ubc88\uae4c\uc9c0 \ubc88\ud638\uac00 \ub9e4\uaca8\uc838 \uc788\ub2e4. \ub2e4\uc74c m\uac1c \uc904\uc5d0\ub294 u\uc5d0\uc11c v\ub85c \ud5a5\ud558\ub294 \ub2e8\ubc29\ud5a5 \ub9c1\ud06c\ub97c \ub098\ud0c0\ub0b4\ub294 \ub450 \uc815\uc218 u\uc640 v\uac00 \uc8fc\uc5b4\uc9c4\ub2e4. \ub450 \uc815\uc218\ub294 \ud55c \uc904\uc5d0 \uc8fc\uc5b4\uc9c0\uba70, \ud56d\uc0c1 \uacf5\ubc31\uc73c\ub85c \uad6c\ubd84\ub418\uc5b4\uc838 \uc788\ub2e4.<\/p>\r\n","output":"<p>\uac01 \ud14c\uc2a4\ud2b8 \ucf00\uc774\uc2a4 \ub9c8\ub2e4, \ud55c \uc904\uc744 \ucd9c\ub825\ud55c\ub2e4. \uc774 \uc904\uc5d0\ub294 \uc815\uc218\ub97c \ud558\ub098 \ud3ec\ud568\ud574\uc57c \ud558\uba70, \uc815\uc218\ub294 \uc785\ub825\uc73c\ub85c \uc8fc\uc5b4\uc9c4 \uc0c1\ud638 \uc811\uc18d \ub124\ud2b8\uc6cc\ud06c\ub97c \ub9c1 \uacfc\/\ub610\ub294 \uc120\ud615 \ubc30\uc5f4\ub85c \ubd84\ud574\ud588\uc744 \ub54c \uc5bb\uc744 \uc218 \uc788\ub294 \uac00\uce58\uc758 \ucd5c\ub300\uac12\uc774\ub2e4.<\/p>\r\n","hint":"","original":"0","problem_lang_code":"\ud55c\uad6d\uc5b4"},{"problem_id":"3295","problem_lang":"1","title":"Networks with Unidirectional Links","description":"<p>There is a multicomputer system that consists of a number of nodes, each with its own memory. The nodes in the system are interconnected via unidirectional communication links. The interconnection network of the system, representing the way in which the nodes are connected together, is modeled as a directed graph, where vertices and directed edges respectively represent nodes and unidirectional links of the network. Figure 1 shows an example of interconnection networks with fourteen nodes interconnected via nineteen unidirectional links.&nbsp;<\/p>\r\n\r\n<p>Linear arrays and rings are two of the important computational structures in interconnection networks. In a linear array, each node except for the extreme ends has two neighboring nodes, one to its left and one to its right, where the two nodes at the ends are connected to their single neighbor. If the nodes at either end are connected, we refer to it as a ring. More specifically, the nodes of a linear array with k nodes can be numbered from 0 to k-1 so that there exists a unidirectional link from node i to node i+1 for every 0 &le; i &lt; k-1. The linear array becomes a ring if we add a unidirectional link from the node k-1 to the node 0.&nbsp;<\/p>\r\n\r\n<p>To support parallel applications that require one of the two aforementioned computational structures, we needs to decompose the system into several subsystems each of whose interconnection networks is a ring or a linear array. The subsystems should be pairwise node-disjoint, i.e., no two subsystems share a common node. According to a recent report, a ring composed of k nodes is worth k dollars while a linear array of k nodes is worth k-1 dollars. This motivates the study on how to decompose the system into subsystems in order to maximize profits. You are to write a program for decomposing the interconnection network of our multicomputer system into rings and\/or linear arrays whose total value is the maximum possible. Note that a linear array may have only one node and in that case, its value is zero dollar.<\/p>\r\n\r\n<p><img alt=\"\" src=\"\/upload\/images\/interconn.png\" style=\"height:305px; width:365px\" \/><\/p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Figure 1<\/strong>. An interconnection network and its decomposition into a ring of six nodes (red) and a linear array of eight nodes (green). The total value of this decomposition is thirteen dollars, which is the maximum possible.&nbsp;<\/p>\r\n","input":"<p>Your program is to read from standard input. The input consists of T test cases, where the positive integer T is given in the first line of the input, followed by the description of each test case. The first line of a test case contains two positive integers n and m, respectively indicating the numbers of nodes and unidirectional links in an interconnection network, in which we assume n &le; 1,000 and m &le; 50,000. The nodes are indexed 0 to n-1. In the following m lines, each line contains two integers u and v, which represent a unidirectional link from node u to node v. The two integers given in a single line are always separated by a space.&nbsp;<\/p>\r\n","output":"<p>Your program is to write to standard output. Print exactly one line for each test case. The line should contain an integer, representing the maximum total value in dollars that can be achieved by decomposing the interconnection network into rings and\/or linear arrays.&nbsp;<\/p>\r\n","hint":"","original":"1","problem_lang_code":"\uc601\uc5b4"}]

출처

ACM-ICPC > Regionals > Asia > Korea > Nationwide Internet Competition > Asia Regional - Daejeon Nationalwide Internet Competition 2013 H번

  • 문제의 오타를 찾은 사람: arine kipa00
  • 문제를 번역한 사람: baekjoon
  • 데이터를 만든 사람: myungwoo
  • 잘못된 데이터를 찾은 사람: Nada